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PROCEEDINGS AND PAPERS. 



Quarterly General Meeting, held in the Society's Apartments, 
William- street, Kilkenny, on Wednesday, July 8th (by ad- 
journment from the 1st), 1863. 

The Very Rev. the Dean of Ossory, President of the Society, 

in the Chair. 

The following new Members were elected : — 

Professor John T. Hodges, M. D., Queen's College, Belfast ; 
and James Torrens, Esq., Belfast: proposed by Edward Benn, 
Esq. 

A. Knight Young, Esq., M. D., Monaghan ; Kev. John K. 
Darley, The Rectory, Cootehill ; and R. M. Tagert, Esq., M. D., 
Carrickmacross : proposed by the Rev. G. H. Reade. 

Robert De Ricci, Esq., M.R.C.S.I., 31, Upper Merrion-street, 
Dublin : proposed by Charles Tandy, Esq. 

E. R.Rowland, Esq., Surveyor of Income Tax, Kilkenny : pro- 
posed by J. G. Robertson, Esq. 

Rev. Richard Galvin, P. P., Rathdrum, county Wicklow ; and 
the Rev. John White, R. C. C, Roundwood, county Wicklow : 
proposed by the Rev. James Gafney. 

Rev. James Corr, R. C.C, Callan, and Mr. Thomas Shelly, 
Callan : proposed by Mr. John Hogan. 

Rev. Thomas Doyle, P. P., Ramsgrange, Arthurstown : pro- 
posed by Richard Long, Esq., M. D. 

Rev. Patrick O'Neill, R. C. C Marlborough-street, Dublin : 
proposed by Joseph Hanly, Esq. 

John Lafian, Esq., Londonderry : proposed by A. G. Geogbe- 
gan, Esq. 

William E. Martin, Esq., C E., 10, Waterloo Avenue, North- 
strand, Dublin : proposed by Mr. W. Lawless. 

Mr. Thomas Francis M^Evoy, Maynooth College : proposed by 
Mr. Prim. 

2 y 



340 

The following presentations were received, and thanks voted to 
the donors : — 

By the Society of Antiquaries of London : " Archaeoloi2^ia," 
Vol. XXXIX. 

By the Geological Society of Dublin: their ''Journal," Vol. 
X., Part 1. 

By the Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland : 
their " Journal/' No. 76. 

By the Statistical and Social Inquiry Society of Ireland : their 
«' Journal," Part 23. 

By the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology : their " Proceedings," 
Vol. III. No. 3. 

By the Numismatic Society : '' The Numismatic Chronicle," 
new series, No. 9. 

By the Society for promoting Scientific Inquiries into Social 
Questions : " Report on the Patent Laws," by James A. Lawson, 
Esq., LL. D., Barrister-at-law. 

By the Wiltshire Archseological and Natural History Society : 
their <« Magazine," No. 22. 

By the Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological Society : their 
'' Original Papers," Vol. VI., Part 3. 

By the Rev. Burgh Byam : '' The Cambrian Journal," for 
March and June, 1862, containing a Memoir of the Byam Family. 

By the Publisher : " The Gentleman's Magazine," for May, 
June, and July, 1863. 

By the Publisher : " The Builder," Nos. 1054-1071, inclusive. 

By the Author : " Cashel of the Kings : being a History of the 
City of Cashel, compiled from scarce Books and Original Docu- 
ments." By John Davis White, of Cashel, Solicitor, Sub-librarian 
of the Cashel Diocesan Library, &c, Clonmel, 1862: Part 1. 

The Rev. James Graves said that this work was worthy of the 
notice of the Members. From the specimen now before them, and 
from his knowledge of the untiring research and accurate habits 
of investigation which characterized the author, he was sure it would 
comprise everything worthy of note which has been handed down 
relative to that ancient seat of Irish royalty and episcopacy. He 
(Mr. Graves) considered this history as one of the many good fruits 
which had sprung from the establishment of their Association. He 
believed he might say that Mr. Davis White was induced to turn 
his attention to the History and Antiquities of Cashel, by the fact 
of his having become a Member of the Kilkenny and South-East of 
Ireland ArchaDological Society. 

By the Right Hon. John Wynne : a curious stone box, of very 
small size, inclosing one of yew timber, with a bronze pin contained 
in the latter ; and also the cranium of a skeleton, buried beside 
which, in a stone cist, the box was found, at Dromiskin, county of 



341 

Louth. These objects had been described and illustrated by the 
Rev. G. H. Reade in the October number of the Society's ''Journal" 
(vol. iv., pp. 199 to 206), and had excited much interest in the 
archaeological world. 

The Rev. G. H. Reade sent the following account of another 
interment discovered in the same field : — 

'' This grave was discovered in the same manner as the former — by the 
plough — as the same height of earth, five feet, had been taken from off 
it also ; thus verifying the opinion which I expressed last year that it 
was the cemetery of the old ecclesiastical buildings formerly existing here, 
and reference to which has been made in the ' Annals of the Four Masters.' 

*' The grave had been kept nearly undisturbed for my inspection ; but 
the skull had been taken up, and part of one side broken ; and some small 
bits of charcoal had been taken away, as my search for charcoal on the 
former occasion had made the people think there was some peculiar value 
attached to it. The skeleton lay entire, stretched on the back, with the 
head towards the west, in the opposite direction to that of No. 1 (the box 
owner) ; it was distant about three and a half yards from No. 1, and 
completely filled the flag coffin ; it was at the same level exactly, lying on 
the yellow till. The kistvaen differed, however, in shape, being built in 
the form of a coffin, but otherwise was constructed in exactly the same 
way ; viz., where the side flags were not high enough, the required 
height was built up with small stones, placed horizontally, as in building 
a wall. The flags were smaller than those of No. 1, as indeed was the 
whole flag coffin, the largest side flag being only 18-|- inches long ; it was 
of the clay state or Lower Silurian formation of the district. The depth 
of the coffin was only 10 inches, and the greatest breadth 15 inches. The 
extreme length of the thigh bone was 17^ inches. The skull appeared at 
first to be covered with hair, as some very fine and soft-looking roots had 
spread over it ; a few of the teeth also remained, but they were very 
much worn down, as those of a very old person, used to masticating hard 
food. 

" Several small shells — of two different kinds — one a flat helix, and the 
other a very small volute — were also found about the middle of the kistvaen, 
as if they had been laid for ornament on the breast ; they were not, however, 
perforated. A small quantity of wood charcoal was also found, but not in so 
large a quantity as in the kistvaen No. 1. From the position in which this 
skeleton lay with regard to No. 1, it strikes me there may be a circle of 
graves, somewhat similar to that which I discovered beneath the Jones- 
borough monolith ; but as the field has been since cropped with potatoes, 
I cannot have the necessary examination made at present. 

*' Christian cemeteries were not circular ; and if these be Christian, then 
it would appear that No. 1 must have been an ecclesiastic, and therefore 
interred with the head to the east. The remains now described are 
those of a woman, and the interment is evidently of the same date as that 
of No. 1 . The great height of the prominence over the eyes, or superci- 
liary ridge struck all present. The skull and facial bones I have pre- 
sented to Dr. Thurnham, and add his description of them, and his opinion 
relative to the probable date of the interment. 



342 

'' If further search proves that the graves lie in a circular form, it will, 
I presume, modify Dr. Thurnham's opinion as to their antiquity : if not, 
the grave No. 1 must be considered of equal date with No. 2, viz., of the 
mediaeval Christian period, and not, as was hitherto supposed, of the earliest 
Christian sepulture." 

The following is Dr. Thurnham's communication above alluded 
to:— 

" This female skull is of dolichocephalic type ; the extreme breadth 
(about 5*2 inches) appearing to have been in proportion to the length (7'1 
inches) as 73 to 100. The frontal bone is rather narrow ; the occiput 
full and prominent ; the nasals large and salient ; the glabella and super- 
ciliary ridges full and projecting ; the face short and broad ; the lower 
jaw somewhat small, the chin prominent and narrow. Most of the teeth 
have been lost during life, the skull being that of a woman far advanced 
in age. 

'^ I think the evidence of an archaeological kind is in favour of the 
skull being of the mediaeval period, and of the cemetery whence it was 
derived being that of the ecclesiastical buildings the remains of which it 
seems still exist. I incline to think that the kists you have discovered 
are not to be referred to the very early Christian period of Ireland, as the 
elaborate construction of the stone and wooden boxes — the latter with its 
spring fastening — are opposed to such a view. If other such boxes and pins 
of bronze are found, it may be possible, when their use can be more con- 
fidently inferred, to assign a date to the grave, at least an approximate one. 
I should not attribute much importance to the snail shells ; but the charcoal 
may be the remains of the ' embers and incense,' prunce cum thurey which 
it was the custom in mediaeval times to deposit with the corpse, as appears 
from Durandus, the great ritualist of the middle ages, whose work, 'Ratio- 
nale Divinorum Officiorum,' has of late been brought into notice by the 
Abbe Cochet (' Archseologia,' vol. xxxvi., p, 258 ; and * Proceedings of the 
Society of Antiquaries,' vol. iii., pp 47, 207).'* 

By Richard Long, Esq., M. D., Arthurstown, county of Wex- 
ford : Three crania of different races — the Greek, the Chinese, and 
the Ashantee. 

The Secretary said it was very important that the Museum 
should possess a collection of crania of the different types of the hu- 
man race for the purpose of comparison with those discovered in 
ancient interments in Ireland ; and he hoped that this presentation 
would be followed by many similar donations. 

By E. Smithwick, Esq., Kilcreene: a portion of the stone 
escutcheon of the Roth family, which had lain for many years in the 
lawn at Kilcreene. Mr. Prim supposed it to have formed a portion 
of the old castle that formerly stood on the site of the present house 
there, anciently the residence of the Roths. This piece of sculpture 
had been removed from Kilcreene, and was for a time lost ; but 
having been recently discovered by the Rev. J Graves at St. Francis' 



343 

Abbey, Mr. Smith wick now presented it, for the purpose of its pre- 
servation. When perfect, the escutcheon displayed several quarter- 
ings of arms, amongst which, besides the Roths', those of the families 
of Butler, Grace, and Knaresborough, were conspicuous, with the 
motto, SOLA SALUS SERViRE DBG ; and beneath the inscription, in 
Roman letters : — the . atchievement . or . richard. roth, late . 
MAYOR , OF . KILKENNY . 1629- Richard Roth's mayoralty was in 
1627-8. He was sheriff in 1614-15. His wife appears to have been a 
member of the Archer family, as at either side of the " achievement," 
on the Kilcreene stone, there were smaller shields ; that on the dexter 
side displaying the arms of Roth, with the initials R. R., and that 
on the sinister side the arms of Archer, with the initials I. A. 

By Mr. J. Birch, Kilkenny : a token which had been struck in 
Dublin, about the beginning of the present century, for the purpose 
of being given in charity. 

By Mr. Prim : an engraving of the plans and elevations of 
several of the locks and lock-keepers' houses of the old canal between 
Kilkenny and Innistioge. It appeared to have formed an illustra- 
tion to a parliamentary report of the last century, on liie progress 
of the works in connexion with the canal project. 

By Arthur Gerald Geoghegan, Esq., Londonderry : a photo- 
graph of five characteristic ancient bronze fibulae, and another of 
eight bronze spearheads ; also photographs of the front, back, and 
side views of a human skull ; and photographs of a portion of an an- 
cient Irish harp, and of two ancient bells. All the photographs 
were executed by Mr. Ayton, of Londonderry. With regard to the 
skulls, harp, and bells, Mr. Geoghegan forwarded the following 
notices : — 

*' Photographs of ancient Crania. — On the deepening of the Black- 
water, by the Board of Works, in September, 1852, at a portion of the 
river close to the town of Blackwater, where the stream divides the coun- 
ties of Tyrone and Armagh, the workmen employed dug up, at about 
four feet below the bed of the river, several ancient canoes, formed from 
the trunks of trees, and evidently hollowed out by the action of fire, and 
flint implements. The canoes were of various sizes, one of them measur- 
ing fully thirty feet in length. Their position when found suggested the 
conjecture that they had been used in an aquatic struggle at the spot. 
Along with the canoes some skulls were dug up, two of which, in a couple 
of days afterwards, came into the possession of William Kelly, Esq., Sub- 
Inspector of Constabulary, and with whom they still remain. 

" On Mr. Kelly showing me his collection of Irish antiquities, which I 
may remark contains many interesting relics of the Stone and Bronze Ages, 
I was struck with the appearance of those aboriginal crania, and requested 
permission to have them photographed ; Mr. Kelly with the utmost courtesy 
consented, and I send you herewith the results. 

*' Availing myself of the ethnological instructions on the fly leaf of one 
of the numbers of the ' Journal ' of our Society, I took the dimensions of 



344 

the skulls, being aided in doing so by Mr. Hamilton, assistant to Doctor 
Corbett, of this city, and annex the particulars, as follows : — 

"Skull No. I. 

Inches. Tenths. 

Horizontal circumference, 21 - 

Longitudinal diameter, 7 3 

Frontal region — length, 5 1 

„ „ breadth, 4 6 

„ „ height, 4 

Parietal region — length, ^ 5 5 

„ „ breadth, 5 - 

„ „ height, o 9 

Occipital region — length, 5 - 

„ ,5 breadth, 5 ~ 

„ „ height, 3 5 

Intermastoid arch, 14 3 

Weight of the skull, empty, 19 oz. av. 

„ „ filled with fine white sand, 96 „ 

Internal capacity of skull, 77 ,» 

Greatest length, 7 5 

Greatest breadth, 7 - 

" The internal capacity was ascertained by filling the skull with the 
finest dry white sand, which I brought from the sand hills at Dunfanaghy, 
on the north-western Donegal coast. The measurements are all externaL 

" Skull No. 2. 

Inches. Tenths. 

Horizontal circumference, 20 

Longitudinal diameter, 7 I 

Frontal region-— length, 4 9 

„ „ breadth, 4 5 

„ height, 3 

Parietal region — length, 5 3 

„ „ breadth, 4 5 

,, ,, height, 3 9 

Occipital region— length, 4 5 

,, ,, breadth, 5 1 

„ height, 3 5 

Intermastoid arch, 12 5 

Weight of the skull, empty, 15 oz. av. 

,, „ filled with white sand, . 79 j5 

„ „ Internal capacity, . . 64 „ 

Greatest height, , 5 5 

Greatest breadth 5 5 

"It will be remarked that there is a decided difference between the 
dimensions of the two crania, especially in the frontal regions ; can this be 
accounted for by the conjecture that No. 2 is the skull of a female ? The 
owner of No. 1 had apparently received a severe wound on the crown, 
where there is an incision of two inches in length in the bone, with sharp 
edges, as if made by the down blow of some weapon, probably a hatchet. 



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345 

The basilar process of No. 2 cranium is perfect, with the orifice for the 
spinal column in good preservation ; in No. I the process is entirely gone. 
The facial bones of both skulls are wanting, as will be observed from the 
photographs. 

'' Ancient Irish Ecclesiastical Bells. — No. 1, cylindrical-shaped ; 
height ^YQ inches ; found on the top of a mountain, in the parish of Lower 
Budooney, county of Tyrone, in the year 1856. It was dug up by a peasant 
cutting turf, from about two feet below the surface. The party who found 
it stated that it had then a tongue or clapper, but this has been lost. 
The bell is now in the possession of Doctor Trinar, of Omagh. 

'* No. 2. This curious bell has been pronounced by the late John Corry, 
Esq., of Newry, a well-known antiquarian, a rare specimen, In a letter to 
Mr. Kelly, dated November 15, 1849, on the subject, he writes : — ' The 
bell is genuine, and a rare specimen ; it belongs to a very early period, as 
no fewer than thirty-one of the same kind were found in a bog at Parsons- 
town, along with bronze spears, celts, gongs, &c,, in a cauldron, some time 
ago. You are, perhaps, aware that it is the opinion of the best antiquarians 
that at the very earliest period they were used as cattle bells, and not 
for Druidical worship, as some visionaries imagine. You must, however, 
take care not to class your bell with the circular sheep bells, which were 
brought from England, and used to the close of the 17 th century. I have 
some of this period with initials in modern English capitals.' The bell 
is now in the collection of William Kelly, Esq., of Londonderry. 

^' Ancient Irish Harp — Found at the bottom of a bog at Taughboyne, 
county of Donegal. The wood was lying beside, crumbled to dust. There 
is a tradition in the neighbourhood that a battle was fought in former 
times in the locality where the harp was found. The workmanship is of 
a superior description. As the bards joined in the onset of battle, it is 
not improbable that this is the iron framework of the clairseach. This 
interesting relic is now in my possession. The parish of Taughboyne 
(Ceac baeicin) is referred to by Dr. O'Donovan, * Book of Rights,' 

p. 131, 71." 

The follov\ring Papers were then submitted to the Meeting : — 



NOTES ON A FAG SIMILE OF AN ANCIENT MAP OF LEIX, 
OFALY, IRRY, CLANMALIER, IREGAN, AND SLIEVE- 
MARGY, PRESERVED IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 

BY HERBERT F. HORE, ESQ. 

The accompanying fac simile of an old map of the above named 
countries is accurately taken from the original in the Cottonian 
collection, in the British Museum, and has been collated with a 
copy in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin, which latter 
map seems to be of later date, and has some local denominations 
more clearly and correctly written than on the former. From in- 
ternal and other evidence, it appears that the Cottonian chart was